A pupillareflex, Az egyik feltétlen reflexünk, a pupillareflex., A pupilla feladata hogy tágulásával és szűkülésével szabályozza, a szembe jutó fény mennyiségét védve ezzel a retinát., Erős fényben a pupilla összeszűkül gyenge fényben pedig kitágul., Erős fényben a pupilla gyorsan szűkül össze . Left consensual. Pupillary Reflex Vision I. The pupillary light reflex (PLR) is the constriction of the pupil that is elicited by an increase in... Pupil. The pupillary light reflex (PLR) is the constriction of the pupil that is elicited by an increase in illumination... Assessment of Patient Suitability for Contact. A pupilla reflex A pupilla tágassága határozza meg, hogy milyen mennyiségű fény esik a retinára. A reflexívben a retinára eső fény által kiváltott ingerület a látóidegen bejut az agyba, majd részben az ellenoldali idegrostokkal kereszteződve az ingerület az agytörzsbe jut, az ott lévő idegmagok ingerlik a pupillaszűkítő izom motoros idegsejtjét, és a pupilla összeszűkül
4. Pupilla reflex vizsgálata. 5. Parancsolt és vezetett szemmozgások vizsgálata. 6. N. faciális vizsgálata (centrális illetve perifériás faciális paresis elkülönítése) 7. Izomtónus vizsgálata (kifejezett hypotonia, rigor, spasztikus tónusfokozódás felismerése) 8 A retinaleválás tünetei. A retinaleválásnak olyan fenyegető jelei vannak, mint a szikralátás, azaz mintha villámlást látna az érintett. A mechanikai húzóerők elektromos impulzust keltenek, amit a betegek fényfelvillanásként élnek meg. Ha ez sokszor fordul elő vagy állandósul, mindenképpen húzóhatásra kell gondolni, és.
A belső szervek működését szabályozó gerincvelői reflex például akkor lép működésbe, amikor az utóbél megtelik. A béltartalom nyomja a bélfalban található érzőideg-végződéseket, ezekben ingerület keletkezik pupilla ne demek? Gözbebeği; Göz bebeği. Pupil, opening in the center of the iris of the eye (Anatomy). Pupilla. Pupilla; gözbebeği. Işığın azlığına ya da çokluğuna göre büyüyüp küçülen, gözde irisin ortasındaki yuvarlak delik. İriste, içinden görüntüyü doğuran ışınımların geçtiği, değişken açıklık. Pupilar. Pupillar
Light enters the eye through the pupil, and the iris regulates the amount of light by controlling the size of the pupil. This is known as the pupillary light reflex. The iris contains two groups of smooth muscles; a circular group called the sphincter pupillae, and a radial group called the dilator pupillae. When the sphincter pupillae contract, the iris decreases or constricts the size of the pupil A pupilla vagy összehúzódik, vagy kitágul, hogy reagáljon a fényre és a közeli ingerekre. A pupilla záróizom és a tágító izmok a két önkéntelen írisz-izom, amelyek szükségesek a retinába utazó fény mennyiségének szabályozásához. A kiegyenlítő reflex akkor fordul elő, amikor a csillóizom összehúzódása a. pilomotor reflex the production of goose flesh on stroking of the skin. placing reflex flexion followed by extension of the leg when the infant is held erect and the dorsum of the foot is drawn along the under edge of a table top; it is obtainable in the normal infant up to the age of six weeks Leírás: Pupilláris dilatációs reflex alapú perioperatív intravénás sufentanil beadás. A kezdő dózis 0,1 mcg / kg bolus, a dózismódosításokat a pupilla dilatációs reflex értékelése után végezzük 10 percenként. Ha a PPI-pontszám 1, kiegészítő adminisztrációt nem hajtanak végre
Pathway of Pupillary Light Dilation. The Sympathetic Fibres arise initially from the ipsilateral hypothalamus through the midbrain and synapse on the C8/T1 Nerve Roots. Second order neurones passes over the apex of the lung and synapse at the superior cervical ganglion. They ascend with the external and internal carotid artery to supply the. Pupillary light reflex. In medicine, there are two pupillary reflexes- . The pupillary light reflex or Haab reflex is the reduction of pupil size in response to light.; The pupillary accommodation reflex is the reduction of pupil size in response to an object coming close to the eye.; Both these reflexes affect both eyes, even if only one eye is stimulated.. Pupillary reflex. In medicine, the pupillary reflex or pupillary light reflex, is the reduction of pupil size in response to light. It is a normal response and dependent on the function of the. The pupillary light reflex constricts the pupil in response to light, and pupillary constriction is achieved through the innervation of the iris sphincter muscle. Anatomy and Physiology Light travels through the cornea, anterior chamber, pupil, lens, and the posterior chamber, eventually reaching the retina Pupillary Reflexes Accommodation reflex: - It is focusing mechanism. - is a reflex action of the eye, in response to focusing on a near object, then looking at distant object. - The reflex, controlled by the parasympathetic nervous system, involves three responses: 1. pupil constriction. 2. Increase biconvexity of lens
Associated with Holmes-Adie syndrome described with Adie's pupil and absent deep tendon reflexes. Overall, this is a benign process (including Holmes-Adie syndrome) Argyll Robertson Pupil. This lesion is a hallmark of tertiary neurosyphillis. Pupils will NOT constrict to light but they WILL constrict with accommodation reflex [re´fleks] a reflected action or movement; the sum total of any particular automatic response mediated by the nervous system. A reflex is built into the nervous system and does not need the intervention of conscious thought to take effect. The knee jerk is an example of the simplest type of reflex. When the knee is tapped, the nerve that.
The pupillary response to light is the reduction in pupil size when the eye is directly illuminated. This is the most common stimulus applied to the contraction of the hole in the center of the iris. The process of contracting both pupils uniformly when the stimulus is generated in a single eye is known as a consensual reflex (Backhaus, 2011) • Cushing reflex - beékelődés - Vérnyomás - Bradycardia - Irregulális légzés. ICP Tünetek • Agyideg tünetek: szemmozgás, pupilla, cornea reflex • • Hosszú pálya tünetek: hemiparézis, hemiplégia, ICP Tünetek TRAUMATOLÓGIA SIMONKA J. A. koponya SÉRÜLT ÉP Azonos oldalon a n. oculomotorius irritációj Reflexes, or reflex actions, are involuntary, almost instantaneous movements in response to a specific stimulus. Reflex arcs that contain only two neurons, a sensory and a motor neuron, are considered monosynaptic. Examples of monosynaptic reflex arcs in humans include the patellar reflex and the Achilles reflex
Define pupillary reflex. pupillary reflex synonyms, pupillary reflex pronunciation, pupillary reflex translation, English dictionary definition of pupillary reflex. Noun 1. pupillary reflex - reflex contraction of the sphincter muscle of the iris in response to a bright light causing the pupil to become smaller light.. Medical definition of pupillary reflex: the contraction of the pupil in response to light entering the eye Expressing the photo-pigment melanopsin, these cells assist in the regulation of circadian photoentrainment and help to drive the pupillary light reflex. Chen et al. now show that these two. PUPILLARY reflex dilation (PRD) was originally described by Budge in 1852 as a sympathetic spinal reflex that dilated the pupil after noxious stimulation. 1He proposed that painful stimuli excited the sympathetic efferents arising in the upper thoracic spinal cord segments via a spinal reflex. However, an extensive animal study by Loewenfeld.
Eyes: Pupillary light reflex: Pupils are equal, round, reactive to light. Accommodation is present. Eyebrows, eyelids, and lashes are present, symmetric, and eyelids are a proximal completely. Conjunctive is pink, clear, with no swelling or lesions. Sclera is china white. Patient wears glasses and the glasses are in good repair 동공의 정상반응은? 빛을 비추면 동공이 수축되고 빛을 제거하면 동공이 원래 상태로 돌아옵니다. 위에 동영상 처럼.. 우리 신규선생님들이 모르는 암호? 하고 할 까요 이해 되시나요? penlight 필수 인 거 아시죠? 간호사들 양쪽 주머니 무겁습니다 . 아주 매우 많이 Pupillary light reflex, or PLR, is a reflex that controls the diameter of the pupil. Based on the amount of light that falls on the eyes, the pupils will either contract or dilate. In situations in which light intensity is high, the pupils will constrict (or become smaller) so that less light enters the eye Each pupil should constrict quickly and equally during exposure to direct light and to light directed at the other pupil (the consensual light reflex). Using the swinging light test, physicians test and observe the pupillary response to consensual light in order to determine if there is a defect present 동공반응(pupil reflex): 동공 반응은 제 3, 4, 6뇌신경의 지배를 받으므로 동공반응 검사를 함으로써 뇌손상과 뇌상태의 변화를 조기에 발견하기 위함이다. 동공반응 검사시에는 동공의 크기와 모양, 양쪽의 동질성등을 관찰한다
The first is a reflex called the Pupil Reflex which is to ensure an appropriate amount of light enters the eye in both bright and dim light. The only structure in the eye involved in the Pupil Reflex is the Iris. The second reflex explained in part 2 is the Focusing Reflex (or sometimes Accommodation) which makes sure that light. Introduction. The visual (retino-thalamocortical) pathway and pupillary light reflex pathway are the two essential ways through which the eye perceives and responds to changes in the environment. Multiple relays of information processing efficiently proceed from the cornea to the brain, and any lesion in the visual or the pupillary reflex.
White pupillary reflex in a 3 year old boy. Correspondence to: P Masaoutis, 154 Mesogeion Ave, 15400 Athens, Greece firstname.lastname@example.org. A 3 year old boy was referred to our department by his general practitioner because of a white reflex of his right eye that had been noted in recent family photos. Direct ophthalmoscopy performed by his. Lack of the pupillary reflex or an abnormal pupillary reflex can be caused by optic nerve damage, oculomotor nerve damage, brain stem death and depressant drugs, such as barbiturates. Normally, both pupils should constrict with light shone into either eye alone. On testing each reflex for each eye, several patterns are possible
pupillary reflex. [ ′pyü·pə‚ler·ē ′rē‚fleks] (physiology) Contraction of the pupil in response to stimulation of the retina by light. Also known as Whytt's reflex. Contraction of the pupil on accommodation for close vision, and dilation of the pupil on accommodation for distant vision. Contraction of the pupil on attempted closure. This study aimed to evaluate the pupillary dilatation reflex (PDR) during a tetanic stimulation to predict insufficient analgesia before nociceptive stimulation in the intensive care unit (ICU). In this prospective non-interventional study in a surgical ICU of a university hospital, PDR was assessed during tetanic stimulation (of 10, 20 or 40 mA) immediately before 40 endotracheal suctionings. The pupillary light reflex allows the eye to adjust the amount of light reaching the retina and protects the photoreceptors from bright lights. The iris contains two sets of smooth muscles that control the size of the pupil (Figure 7.2). What is convergence and accommodation mean with regard to vision
Accommodation Reflex What is the accommodation Reflex? The accommodation reflex is an automatic coordinated change that occurs in the eyes when you switch focus from an object that's far away to one that's closer. The reflex involves three responses: convergence of the eyes pupillary constriction lens accommodation How do the eyes change during accommodation? Convergence [ Pupillary light reflex reductions in IIH patients indicate compromised RGC function. PLR measurement, particularly under rod- and melanopsin-mediated conditions, may be a useful adjunct to standard clinical measures of visual function in IIH The pupillary light reflexes rely on a reflex pathway with the optic nerve as the sensory nerve, the oculomotor nerve as the motor nerve and the midbrain as the processing centre. How to Elicit; Shine a light into each pupil. Watch to see that both the ipsilateral (direct response) and contralateral (consensual response) pupils constrict as a. De accommodatiereflex van de pupil houdt in dat de pupil nauwer wordt als reactie op een object dat steeds dichter bij het oog komt. Een nauwere pupil geeft een scherper beeld op de retina. De reflexbaan van deze reflex loopt gelijk met die van de lichtreflex. Er is echter ook een aparte accommodatiereflex van de lens
Introduction. Pupillary light reflex (PLR) is an objective marker reflecting optic nerve function .Because PLR is related to the severity of optic nerve damage, evaluating PLR is a useful approach for neuro-ophthalmologic patients [2-4].However, in practice, PLR is subjectively determined at a rough estimate, which depends much on the experience of the examiner, and the velocity and. Pupil reflex is the reduction or increase in the size of the pupil in response to increased or reduced light intensity. The school pupil's reflection (pupil reflex) in the mirrors changed in size. The iris in our eye adjusts the size of the pupil in response to the level of light. It opens the pupil wider in dim conditions, and reduces the. Students observe and test their reflexes, including the (involuntary) pupillary response and (voluntary) reaction times using their dominant and non-dominant hands, as a way to further explore how reflexes occur in humans. Using information from the associated lesson about how robots react to situations, including the stimulus-to-response framework, students see how engineers use human. Purpose: To develop instrumentation and methods for thorough quantitative assessment of the pupillary light reflex (PLR) in dogs under varying stimulus conditions. Methods: The PLR was recorded in normal Dachshunds using a custom system allowing full user control over stimulus intensity, color, and duration. Chemical restraint protocols were compared to determine which protocol provided for.
The anatomical substrate of the pupillary light reflex was investigated in normal and innate microstrabismic cats using anatomical methods as well as electrical stimulation. The bilateral retinal input to the nucleus praetectalis olivaris (NPO), the pretectal relay station in the subcortical pupilloconstrictor pathway, was identified to come. Paradoxical Pupil Dilation to direct light. Occurs on moving light from opposite to affected eye. VI. Findings: Abnormal - Efferent lesion (CN 3 or pupillary muscle) Affected eye loses consensual and Direct Light Reflex. Unaffected eye maintains consensual and direct reflex .e. impairment of the pupillary reflex) → pupils are anisocoric; Accommodation and convergence. Accommodation: adjustment of the eyes to different distances (near vision versus far vision) Primarily mediated by the lens, which changes convexity to adapt the refractory power The pupillary light reflex requires CN II, CN III, and central brain stem connections. Light shined in one eye stimulates retinal photoreceptors, and subsequently retinal ganglion cells, whose axons travel through the optic nerve, chiasm, and tract to terminate in the pretectum (pretectal nucleus)
pupil Size by measuring the pupillary light reflex (PLR). This refers to the rapid contraction of the pupil in response to light. Use new students oscillation In the paradigm, the brightness of the visual stimulus was alternated, evoking periodic vibrations of pupil size. Using the Fast Fourier Transform algorithm, researchers extracted pupil. The affected, miotic pupil will have an intact light and near pupillary reflex, but due to an inactive pupillodilator muscle, the pupil will slowly dilate due to passive sphincter release in the dark The pupillary light reflex (PLR) is performed in the dark utilizing a strong light source (i.e. the Finnoff transilluminator). A penlight will not produce the focused intense light necessary for these tests and cannot be used. Canine eyes will also typically dilate in sympathetic reponse to agitation within an examination room Pupilla mérete a látáshoz szem a szervezet egyik legsebezhetőbb alkotóeleme. Organofoszfátok A fotomotoros reflex élettana[ szerkesztés ] A szembe belépő fény háromféle fényérzékeny sejttípussal találkozik: a csapokkal, a pálcikákkal és a fényérzékeny ganglionsejtekkel Pupil to Pupil For grades 3-12. Methods Dim the lights in a room. After a few minutes, look at the eyes of another person and note the size of the pupil (the black center spot in the middle of the eye). Turn the room lights back on. Check the size of the pupils again. The pupils should now be smaller
Pupillary Light Reflex Clinical Exam Anatomy Pathway Sections Further Reading . Pathway Light penetrates the globe of the eye to the retina. Electrochemical receptors in the retina are excited and the generated impulses are projected into the optic nerve. Light is next projected from the retina through the optic nerve to the optic chiasm where. The pupillary light reflex (PLR) or photopupillary reflex is a reflex that controls the diameter of the pupil, in response to the intensity of light that falls on the retinal ganglion cells of the eye, thereby assisting in adaptation to various levels of lightness/darkness. A greater intensity of light causes the pupil to constrict (miosis/myosis) (allowing less light in), whereas a lower.
Classify the pupillary reflexes as somatic or visceral based on the effector involved. visceral. What is the cranial nerve that contains the afferent neurons involved in the pupillary reflex? optic nerve Erős fény hatására a pupilla összehúzódik, és önkéntelenül hunyorogni kezdünk, ezzel még jobban védelmezve a szemet a fénytől. Ez az automatikus pupilla-reflex az oka annak, hogy a rossz minőségű, UV-szűrő nélküli napszemüveg többet árt a szemnek, mint amennyit használ
Light enters the eye through the pupil, and the iris regulates the amount of light by controlling the size of the pupil. This is known as the pupillary light reflex. The iris contains two groups of smooth muscles; a circular group called the sphincter pupillae, and a radial group called the dilator pupillae the iris sphincter regulates the amount of light entering the eye to keep it within the dynamic range of the photoreceptors. MIOSIS (constriction) is mediated via the PUPILLARY LIGHT REFLEX. afferent limb of reflex is the optic nerve ; stimulation of parasympathetic fibers in the oculomotor nerve (III) causes contraction of the sphincter pupillae muscles (muscarinic receptor activation
Objective: The anatomy of the human pupillary light reflex (PLR) pathway is a matter of debate. The aim of this study was twofold: namely, to investigate the association of a relative afferent pupillary defect (RAPD) in acquired suprageniculate lesions with the location and extent of the cerebral lesions. Further, we suggest a new strategy of lesion analysis by combining established techniques. In medicine, there are two pupillary reflexes- . The pupillary light reflex is the reduction of pupil size in response to light.; The pupillary accommodation reflex is the reduction of pupil size in response to an object coming close to the eye.; Both these reflexes affect both eyes, even if only one eye is stimulated. The pattern of pupillary response to light can help determine which of the. Differenciáldiagnosztikai szempontból fontos, hogy elkülönítsük a reflexes pupillamerevségtől (iridoplegia reflectorica). Diagnosztikájában jól használható a pilocarpin test: míg normális pupilla a 1/4%-os pilocarpinra nem reagál, addig a pupillotoniás pupilla a hiperszenzibilitás miatt erősen és gyorsan beszűkül The pupillary light reflex two main parts: an afferent limb and an efferent limb. The diagram below shows the neuroanatomical pathways of the pupillary light reflex. The details of the pathway are detailed below the diagram. Afferent Pathway of Pupillary Light Reflex (solid yellow above): Light enters the pupil and stimulates the retina
Objectives Pupil light reflex (PLR) has been widely used as a method for evaluating parasympathetic activity. The first aim of the present study is to develop a PLR measurement using a computer screen set-up and compare its results with the PLR generated by a more conventional setup using light-emitting diode (LED). The parasympathetic nervous system, which is known to control the 'rest and. Evaluation of pupillary light reflex (PLR) is an important neurological test with a variety of clinical applications. Obstacles such as severe soft tissue damage or hyphema may obstruct the visual access to the pupil, thus rendering direct PLR observation difficult or impossible. Multipurpose ultrasonic systems, however, can overcome this problem More information: Xiangyong Yuan et al, Multisensory signals inhibit pupillary light reflex: Evidence from pupil oscillation, Psychophysiology (2021). DOI: 10.1111/psyp.13848 Provided by Chinese.
Diagram of pupillary reflex to light stimulus (after Lowenstein and Loewenfeld). L.P.=Latent Period in pupillary contraction. Kumnick (1956) stated that the latency period of pupil constriction is not affected by increasing age  but is affected significantly by the pupillary conditions of restitution and decay of restitution at certain age. hibit pupillary light reflex. The visual flickering stimulus, which changes its luminance periodically, would induce a dynamic change of pupil size, or in other words an oscil-lation of pupil size. If multisensory inputs inhibit the light reflex, the pupil oscillation would fluctuate in a smalle A new study examines the pupillary light reflex in infants and concludes that the amount of light the pupil lets in may be an accurate autism predictor
Intact Consensual Light Reflex. Paradoxical Pupil Dilation to direct light. Occurs on moving light from opposite to affected eye. Findings: Abnormal - Efferent lesion ( CN 3 or pupillary muscle) Affected eye loses consensual and Direct Light Reflex. Unaffected eye maintains consensual and direct reflex The review is organized in the following sections: 1) the pupillary response to full-field, global light stimuli; 2) pupil perimetry or the pupillary response to focal light stimuli; 3) the pupillary response to isoluminant stimuli, eg, color spatial frequency, motion; 4) receptive field organization in the pupillary light reflex pathway
Introduction. Pupillary light reflex is an important indicator for the determination of whether an unconscious patient's brain is damaged (1,2).Pupillary light reflex should be assessed to determine the therapy the patient is to receive, and to evaluate the patient's status prior to and subsequent to treatment A konszenzuális reflex vizsgálata különösen akkor fontos, ha nem találunk a szemfenéken magyarázatot a látásromlásra pl. Így az aggravatio leleplezésében is szerepe lehet: ép szemfenék és megtartott pupillareakciók mellett gyanúnk lehet arra, hogy kitágult pupilla és látás beteg szimulál Examining Pupil Reflexes 1) Direct reflex Method: While the patient looks at a distant target, shine the light from inferiorly and slightly temporal (shining the light from directly in front of the eye will stimulate the near reflex that will produce pupil constriction . Pupillary light reflex pathway. Pathway of the pupillary reaction to light. (Reprinted with permission: Basic and Clinical Science Course, Section 5, American Academy of Ophthalmology. Part XXXII: The effect of stimulation of the sciatic nerve upon the mechanisms which mediate reflex pupillary widening (dilatation) and narrowing (constriction): 240-242. A 194 * •. — & Einthoven, W. M., (1923) Functions of the cervical sympathetic as manifested by its action currents. Amer
Definition of pupillary reflex in the Definitions.net dictionary. Meaning of pupillary reflex. What does pupillary reflex mean? Information and translations of pupillary reflex in the most comprehensive dictionary definitions resource on the web The pupillary light reflex (PLR) is also a well-established method of identifying loss of ganglion cell function 10. However, changes in the PLR of patients with EMB-induced optic neuropathy have. . This finding strengthens the link between the altered pupil reflex and autism. It's not simply relating only to a categorical diagnosis, but also to the severity of symptoms, Jones says The pupillary light reflex involves sensory input through the optic nerve and motor response through the oculomotor nerve to the ciliary ganglion, which projects to the circular fibers of the iris. As shown in this short animation, pupils will constrict to limit the amount of light falling on the retina under bright lighting conditions
Actually, pupil reflex in response to light stimulus is composed of afferent fibers from the retina to the Edinger-Westphal (EW) nucleus of the oculomotor nucleus and efferent fibers from the EW. pupillary constriction are dependentonthe stimulus intensity employed. These findings have subse-quentlybeenconfirmed.3 Borgmann6gave95%confidence limits in defining theeffect ofageonreflex amplitudeandconstriction andredilatation velocity. Therehasbeennostudyin which a statistical analysis of the normal pupillary light reflex over a range of. Reflex, pupillary synonyms, Reflex, pupillary pronunciation, Reflex, pupillary translation, English dictionary definition of Reflex, pupillary. Noun 1. pupillary reflex - reflex contraction of the sphincter muscle of the iris in response to a bright light causing the pupil to become smaller light.. Pupillary dilation reflex based perioperative intravenous remifentanil administration. Starting dose 5 ng/ml by continous infusion, dosage adjustments are made after pupillary dilation reflex assessment every 10 minutes. When PPI score is 1, the dosage is decreased with 0.2 ng/ml Additionally, is the pupillary reflex Monosynaptic? The simplest reflexes are monosynaptic, such as the stretch or myotatic reflex. Ocular auto- nomic reflexes include the oculocardiac, pupillary, accommodative and lacrimatory reflexes. Beside above, what effect does the Jendrassik maneuver have on the Myotatic reflex
Pupillary reflexes. With the patient seated, dim the lights in the assessment room to allow you to assess pupillary reflexes effectively. Direct pupillary reflex. Assess the direct pupillary reflex: Shine the light from your pen torch into the patient's pupil and observe for pupillary restriction in the ipsilateral eye d its pupillary reflexes were measured to detect autonomic changes in response to pain. With increasing doses of ketamine, the pupillary light reflex and the pupillary dilation response decreased. This could be caused by N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor antagonism in the pupillary reflexes pathway or by the analgesic effects of ketamine...
Red reflex. The red reflex test is used to screen for abnormalities of the back of the eye (posterior segment) and opacities in the visual axis, such as a cataract or corneal opacity. An ophthalmoscope held close to the examiner's eye and focused on the pupil is used to view the eyes from 12 to 18 inches away from the subject's eyes Leading medical textbooks consistently support the idea that the presence or absence of light reflex is the single most important physical sign potentially distinguishing structural from metabolic coma; pupillary pathways are relatively resistant to metabolic insult. 12, 13 Normal size, shape, and response to light indicate intact midbrain. The red reflex is most easily seen when the observer's line of sight is aligned with the light source into the eye. An example is a camera in which the flash is mounted very close to the lens resulting in photographs with red pupillary reflexes. The red reflex is either absent or white with leukocoria The pupillary light reflex (PLR) or photopupillary reflex is a reflex that controls the diameter of the pupil, in response to the intensity (luminance) of light that falls on the retinal ganglion cells of the retina in the back of the eye, thereby assisting in adaptation of vision to various levels of lightness/darkness